The Norwegian Americans, like Lutherans everywhere, set a high value on the function of music in the life of the church. He served in the United Church, then joined the Free Church, and spent his final years independent of all denominations. Three were members of Hauges Synod or of the Free Church.
A partial list would include: Lars Lund and Gjermund Hoyme, Harpen I - Harpen IV (Chicago, 187888); M. Brøhaugh, Vægterrøsten (Chicago, 1887); Carsten Woll, Kors og krone (Christiania, 1889); A. Also included was "Sicilian Mariners," set to three texts, one each for Christmas, Easter, and Pentecost.In addition, a few congregations still used Guldbergs Salmebog. The editors must have taken the songs exactly as they found them.These books, although generally satisfying to the older people, failed to meet the needs of the young, who thought the Lutheran hymns stodgy and uninteresting and who, furthermore, were becoming bilingual and wanted to sing hymns in English as well as in Norwegian. All of the volumes of Harpen were published in Norwegian.Preoccupation with such aspects of Christianity, especially the last, undoubtedly accounts for the titles of many of these song collections: Hjemlandssange (Songs of the Homeland i.e., heaven), Den syn gende pilegrim (The Singing Pilgrim), Vægterrøsten (The Cry of the Watchman), Israels sange (Songs of Israel, or heaven), Zions harpe (Harp of Zion). The second volume, like the first, contained 56 songs.More than a touch of romanticism is involved in the persistent emphasis on the unattainable for what is distant and therefore desirable. These two volumes, combined in one, by 1888 had sold twenty thousand copies.
Dating for unge Langeland
But toward the end of the nineteenth century there was an insistent demand for a new type of expression. Most chorales are characterized by a rather simple, straightforward, unadorned type of melodic movement, which distinguishes them from the lighter, more lyrical hymn tunes of the nineteenth century.It sprang from religious revivals, which emphasized individual experience as essential to Christian faith. As the Norwegian language has no equivalent to the English word "hymn," all Norwegian hymn tunes come under the term koral.With the revivals came songs that were more superficial and emotional than the traditional church hymn. Lighter melodies would be called simply sange (songs).These were known as aandelige sange (spiritual songs), and they presented a vivid contrast to those used in church. The American tune, "Home, Sweet home," was also used, set to a sacred Norwegian text.The number of church hymnals in regular use was about as great as the number of Lutheran synods. The later publications, which appeared at the close of the century, showed improvement in harmonic treatment and writing. If the original tune had been edited by a musician, they were fortunate.
Worship services were conducted in Norwegian, and the standard hymnals were Landstads Salmebog, which had been authorized for general use in the United Church and in Hauges Synod, and the hymnal published expressly for the Norwegian Synod, which was commonly known as Synodens salmebog. For them the editors had the professional assistance of such well-known Norwegian-American musicians as John Dahle, F. Often this was not the case, as the inconsistent harmonic treatment demonstrates.Varying theological emphases among the immigrants had brought about the formation of several synods. Hoyme subsequently became the first president of the United Norwegian Lutheran Church. He attended Red Wing Seminary in Minnesota, the preparatory school of Hauges Synod, and served out his pastorate in that synod.The year 1890 provides a convenient milestone in this movement. Haugan was a temperance lecturer as well as a minister, and he published a volume of temperance songs called Kamp melodier (Battle Melodies). In America he became a pastor first in the Eielsen Synod, later in Hauges Synod.In 1898, in response to this demand, two of the synods issued English hymnals. The first, which appeared in 1878, contained 56 songs. The editors stated, in their foreword, that music was included because none of the books previously used in the Sunday schools had it.The United Church published The Church and Sunday School Hymnal, and the Norwegian Synod, Christian Hymns for Church, School, and Home. In 1904 the United Church issued a Norwegian hymnbook for youth entitled Den lille pilegrim (The Little Pilgrim). They promised to issue more volumes if the first met with favor.